The post diameter may significantly affect the return loss of the waveguide. The PCB fabrication techniques have low manufacturing cost and great design flexibility. In this process, the metal holes are created either by micro-drilling or by laser cutting and their metallization are performed by using a conductive paste or metal plating Deslandes, At higher frequencies, radiation losses can occurs due to some technological limitations. The LTCC technology has the advantages of low conductor loss and low dielectric loss. It is very attractive for various integrated packaging. LTCC provide a harmonic bed for embedded microwave and mm-wave passive components including antennas.
The applications of SIW are explained on the basis of passive and active components. The passive components of SIW are filters, circulators and couplers, etc. SIW filters provide good selectivity as compared to other planar filters. Couplers find application in beam forming due to directional property and precision measurement. The most popular coupler is Riblet short-slot coupler which consists of two waveguides with coinciding H-planes and coupler outputs are in phase quadrature.
The active SIW components are amplifier, oscillator and mixer, etc. The SIW technology is used in amplifiers for harmonic suppression. The block diagram of the SIW amplifier is designed as shown in Figure 14 which consists of two iris-type inductive discontinuities and DC-decoupled transition. SIW technology can be used to construct high Q resonant cavity. Low-phase noise oscillator could be designed by using high Q resonant cavity.
The positive feedback oscillator is the combination of an amplifier and SIW cavity which are formed on the same dielectric substrate. Over the decades, different types of SIW has been evolved to overcome the bandwidth and size limitations of conventional SIW line. Different topologies have been applied for the size reduction of SIW i. For the bandwidth improvement, two different topologies have been used i.
Ridged substrate integrated waveguide will give highest mono-modal bandwidth of operation as compared to conventional one. The use of novel material plays an important role for reducing the conductor and dielectric losses of SIW components. You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.
Planar circuits for microwaves and lightwaves
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Article Figures and tables References. Introduction The Substrate Integrated Waveguide SIW technology represents an emerging approach for the implementation and integration of microwave, millimeter components. Table 1. Table 2. Design analysis of siw component The SIW parameters must be taken carefully in order to get desired result.
Conclusion Over the decades, different types of SIW has been evolved to overcome the bandwidth and size limitations of conventional SIW line. Funding Funding.
Surface plasmon polaritons SPPs are localized surface waves propagating along a metal-dielectric or metal-air interface at infrared or visible frequencies. Due to their ability to spatially confine electromagnetic waves in subwavelength scale, SPPs provide efficient solutions to circumvent the diffraction limit of conventional optical elements and build highly integrated optical components and circuits 1 , 2 , 3.
Microwave and terahertz radiations have great potential applications in communication, sensing, radar, spectroscopy and allow the analysis of various material properties 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , Obviously, it may have many advantages if this concept of highly localized waveguiding can be applied to these lower frequency regimes microwave or terahertz , where plasmonics enables high performance and deep miniaturization of waveguides, circuits and systems. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest into development of novel efficient plasmonic waveguides at lower frequencies.
However, since the intrinsic plasma frequencies of most metals approach ultraviolet region, the natural SPPs along the flat and smooth metal-dielectric interface do not occur at lower frequencies, which severely restrict their practical applications in microwave or terahertz regimes. In the last few years, in order to achieve strong subwavelength confinement waveguiding in microwave regime, the concept of spoof SPPs has been proposed to resemble the SPP behaviors at optical frequencies Based on this concept, various bulk plasmonic waveguides including perfect-conductor surfaces textured with subwavelength one-dimensional rectangular, slanted, tapered, etc.
Domino plasmonic waveguides, L-shaped, T-shaped, wedge-shaped or other lateral shaped plasmonic waveguides 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 have also been investigated. The spoof SPP dispersion characteristics of these plasmonic waveguides can be directly manipulated by the shapes and dimensions of the subwavelength textures. Nevertheless, most of these structures have disadvantages of inherent bulk geometrics and some even require complicated manufacturing techniques in fabrication process.
Recently, as a novel class of planar plasmonic waveguides for broadband and low loss spoof SPP propagation, periodic subwavelength corrugated ultrathin metallic strips have received extensive attention 26 , 27 , 28 , Compared with the bulk plasmonic waveguides, these corrugated ultrathin metallic strips have smaller planar structure and tighter field confinement and can be easily fabricated using the standard PCB process. Meanwhile, because of their good field confinement, the crosstalk from adjacent pairs of corrugated ultrathin waveguides is much lower than conventional microstrip lines 30 , Due to these attractive characteristics, corrugated ultrathin metallic strips provide a new way to achieve versatile planar plasmonic integrated circuits in lower frequency regime, especially at microwave or terahertz frequencies.
To date, the properties of corrugated ultrathin metallic strips with single groove array or symmetrically double groove arrays have been theoretically and experimentally investigated, and based on them, many plasmonic devices including filters, splitters, antennas, and amplifiers have been demonstrated as well, which drastically accelerate the development of the spoof SPPs technology and their applications 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , However, despite recent progress, the waveguiding properties of spoof SPPs propagating along ultrathin metallic strips with staggered double groove arrays still remain to be further investigated.
In this paper, planar staggered plasmonic waveguides PSPWs consisting of an ultrathin metallic strip with periodic subwavelength staggered double groove arrays supported by a flexible dielectric substrate are proposed as new promising plasmonic waveguides for efficient and strongly confined spoof SPP propagation at microwave and terahertz frequencies.
By introducing such a staggered structure with a geometrically lateral shift, the proposed PSPWs demonstrate unique staggered EM coupling and spoof SPP waveguiding phenomenon. The spoof SPP propagation properties of these waveguides are numerically and experimentally investigated by taking into account the finite conductivity of the metal and the dielectric loss of the substrate. The near field distributions of spoof SPPs and dispersion relations versus geometry dimensions and material parameters are analyzed and compared. It is important to note that, due to the scale invariance of classical electromagnetism, the proposed PSPWs can be scaled up to the terahertz regime, which may have promising applications in integrated plasmonic devices in microwave and terahertz regimes.
The proposed PSPW consists of an ultrathin metallic strip perforated by periodic subwavelength staggered double groove arrays on both sides printed on a flexible dielectric substrate. To study the propagation characteristics along PSPWs in the x -direction, we use the Finite Element Method FEM to numerically calculate and analyze the dispersion relations and near field distributions under different geometric and dielectric parameters.
As shown in Fig.
Meanwhile, the dispersion curves corresponding to bulk copper plasmonic waveguide with a single-sided groove array see inset in Fig. As observed in this figure, the asymptotic frequency of single side corrugated copper plasmonic waveguide Type I is The asymptotic frequency of the staggered copper plasmonic waveguide Type II is much lower than the Type I waveguide, which decreases slightly from It is remarkable that the proposed PSPW consisting of both metallic strip and substrate exhibit even lower asymptotic frequency of Clearly, all dispersion curves deviate far away from the light line, which is similar to the dispersion behaviors of SPPs in the optical regime.
The top inset curve in Fig. It is found that the propagation length decreases as the operating frequency increases. This is because the fields of spoof SPPs are confined much tighter and causing more propagation loss in higher frequency band than in the lower one.go
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Especially, when the operating frequency region is close to the asymptotic frequency, the propagation length is drastically decreased near to zero, resulting from the cut off phenomenon of the spoof SPP mode. Therefore, by tuning the geometric parameters and dielectric parameters, the operating frequency band of PSPW can easily be extended to terahertz or infrared regimes.
Subwavelength field confinement is one of the key characteristics for the spoof SPP modes, which can be achieved by corrugated plasmonic waveguides. By creating special artificial electromagnetic boundary conditions, PSPWs increase the penetration of the electromagnetic fields into the subwavelength grooves in the metal strip, resulting in tight confinement of spoof SPPs. To intuitively view these characteristics, we first compare the spatial distributions of fundamental modes for PSPW and staggered copper plasmonic waveguides Type II with the same dimensions at The schematic view of electric field vector distribution on the xoy plane cut in copper is presented in Fig.
It is obvious that the electric fields at all cases are tightly confined around and rapidly decay away from the corrugated groove area at a deep subwavelength scale. Besides the subwavelength field confinement features, this PSPW also has attractive advantages in their planar and miniature structures and great potential in planar plasmonic devices compared with the conventional bulk plasmonic waveguides.
It is obvious that the field confinements of the proposed PSPW with substrate are much stronger compared with those staggered plasmonic waveguide structures without substrate. Due to its special structural feature with a geometrically lateral shift, the proposed planar staggered plasmonic waveguide displays unique staggered EM coupling and waveguiding phenomenon.
To gain further insight into these propagation properties, we compare the dispersion relation and field distributions of the PSPW with that of the symmetrical double-sided plasmonic waveguide, as shown in Fig.
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The dispersion relation and propagation length curves calculated from the plasmonic waveguides with symmetrical and staggered double-sided corrugation case with the same structural dimensions are presented in Fig. Figure 3 c,d show the electric field E z profiles for the staggered and symmetrical cases at each asymptotic frequency. It is clear that the EM cross coupling in the x -direction of PSPW is much stronger than that of a symmetrical plasmonic waveguide. Figure 3 e,f display the normalized amplitudes of electric field E distributions on the yoz plane for both structures, indicating equivalent tight field confinement for both structures at each asymptotic frequency.
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The distance between the two adjacent grooves in both sides in the PSPW is reduced, and the EM coupling between adjacent units is enhanced, which accordingly results in slightly increasing the asymptotic frequencies and drastically improving the propagation length, while keeping as tight field confinement as the symmetrical double side corrugated plasmonic waveguide.
Besides, we also compare the dispersion relation, propagation length and the field distributions among PSPW with staggered single-strip and two other kinds of double-strip plasmonic waveguides with U-shaped corrugation proposed in ref. From this point of view, PSPW is a promising spoof SPP waveguide with excellent performance, which not only can achieve subwavelength spoof SPP confinement but also can exhibit low loss and long propagation length.
Simulated dispersion relation, propagation length, and near field distributions for the plasmonic waveguides with symmetrical and staggered double-sided corrugation case with the same structural dimensions: a dispersion relation; b propagation length; c , d normalized electric field component E z distributions on the xoy plane which is 0. Read more Read less. Amazon Global Store US International products have separate terms, are sold from abroad and may differ from local products, including fit, age ratings, and language of product, labeling or instructions.
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